The Gothic style was popular during the 13th, 14th and early 15th centuries. During this period, the
initial caps were smaller than before, and the paintings were more realistic. Borders and letters were
often decorated with flowery vines, called "whitevine interlace." The example of the Gothic style
shown below is from the Bestiary of Guillaume Le Clerc, created in the early 13th century (a "bestiary"
was a book about the appearance and habits of real or imaginary animals.
The Renaissance period began around 1450 and lasted until the 17th century. The word
"Renaissance" means "rebirth." During this time, there was a rebirth of interest in classical art,
sculpture and literature. At the beginning of the Renaissance era, a German printer named Johann
Gutenberg invented the printing press. Because of this invention, many copies of a book could be
printed at once by machine, rather than being copied one at a time by scribes.