Answers to Outdoor Safety Quiz
1. C. The safest position to
maintain when being carried downstream in a river is on your back, feet first.
Head first is dangerous because your face, head, and neck are exposed to rocks and
other obstacles which may lie in the churning water. Thrashing wildly will only
tire you out and create a sense of panic. Swimming upstream is usually
impossible and is a waste of precious energy.
2. C. Both the front and back brakes. The
best way to brake is to rely more on the back brake while feathering the front.
Slamming on the more powerful front brake may cause you to catapult over the
handlebars, while using too much force on the rear may send you into a skid.
3. D. All of the above. In addition to
well-tuned brakes, a good helmet is essential for bike safety. Eighty percent of
biking deaths are caused by head injuries.
4. E. None of the above. It is never 100%
safe to drink untreated water in the outdoors. Although there are plenty of
natural springs and other sources that are relatively free of dangerous bacteria,
to be on the safe side you should always treat your water before drinking or
cooking with it. If you drink untreated water, you might suffer stomach pain,
cramps and diarrhea, caused by a a bacterium known as giardia.
5. D. All of the above. The quickest way to
treat water in the wilderness is with a water filter designed to remove giardia
and other harmful bacteria. However, they're a bit expensive and should always
be backed up with an alternate method. Adding iodine (usually available in
tablet form) to your water and allowing it to dissolve completely is an effective
method. Boiling water for a minute or two will also kill the bacteria. Note
that at higher altitudes water will boil at temperatures lower than 212 degrees
Fahrenheit and should be boiled for a longer period of time.
6. B. The head. A person will lose most heat
through his or her head for several reasons. First, the head has a tremendous
amount of blood running through it and will radiate heat from that blood.
Second, it is the body's ceiling -- the highest point. And third, in in cold
environments, your face and head are less likely to be covered than other body
parts. Feeling cold? Put on a hat!!
7. B. The sun's radiation is strongest from
late morning to early afternoon. This is because during this time the sun is
highest in the sky and its light has the least amount of the Earth's atmosphere
to travel through to reach the ground and hence, your skin. The temperature of
the air has nothing to do with how much radiation you're getting from the
sun -- you can get a sunburn on your face in the middle of winter.
8. E. It is never perfectly safe to cross a
frozen lake. You must always use extreme caution when traveling across a frozen
body of water. If you do decide to walk across a frozen lake, pond or river, try
not to do it alone. Most humans will experience hypothermia (the dangerous
lowering of one's body temperature) within several minutes of submersion in icy
water and can go into shock and drown.
9. A and C. Wool
and fleece. Of these answer choices, wool and fleece are the best options. Both
are good at trapping escaping body heat (this is what keeps you warm).
10. D. All of the above. Hiking makes you
thirsty, and you should not assume water will be available, so bring a canteen or
bottle of water with you. It's also a good idea to bring along a small first aid
kit with treatments for blisters, bug bites, and so forth. In addition, you
should learn to recognize the poisonous plants in your area to avoid getting a
painful, itchy skin rash.